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Citing Sources

A Note about Chicago/Turabian Citations

Chicago has two systems of citation:

  • The Notes & Bibliography system uses notes (footnotes, endnotes, or both) and a bibliography. It is used in history, literature, and the arts.
  • The Author-Date system uses parenthetical references in the text and a bibliography. It is used in the sciences and social sciences.

At UMW, Notes & Bibliography is the more popular of the two systems, so some instructors may use "Chicago style" or "Chicago/Turabian" as shorthand for "Chicago Notes & Bibliography System." Ask your instructor which system is preferred for your class.

Both systems are described in these manuals:

Notes & Bibliography System Examples

Author-Date System Examples